Sunday, May 24, 2020

Dry Ice Composition and Uses

Dry ice is the general term for solid carbon dioxide (CO), coined in 1925 by Long Island-based Prest Air Devices. Though originally a trademarked term, dry ice has become the most common way of referring to carbon dioxide in its solid, or frozen, state. How Is Dry Ice Manufactured? Carbon dioxide is frozen by compressing carbon dioxide gas to a high pressure to create dry ice. When it is released, as liquid carbon dioxide, it quickly expands and evaporates, cooling some of the carbon dioxide down to the freezing point (-109.3 F or -78.5 C) so that it becomes solid snow. This solid can be compressed together into blocks, pellets, and other forms. Such dry ice snow also forms on the nozzle of a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher when it is used. Special Properties of Dry Ice Under normal atmospheric pressure, dry ice undergoes the process of sublimation, transitioning directly from solid to gaseous form. In general, at room temperature and normal pressure, it sublimates at a rate of 5 to 10 pounds every 24 hours. Because of the very low temperature of dry ice, it is used for refrigeration. Packing frozen food in dry ice allows it to remain frozen without the mess that would be involved with other cooling methods, such as water from melted ice. Several Uses of Dry Ice Cooling materials—food, biological samples, perishable items, computer components, etc.Dry ice fog (see below)Cloud seeding to increase precipitation from existing clouds or decreasing cloud thicknessTiny pellets can be shot at surfaces to clean them, similar to sanding ... since it sublimates, the benefit is less residue to clean upVarious other industrial uses Dry Ice Fog One of the most popular uses of dry ice is in special effects, to create fog and smoke. When combined with water, it sublimates into a cold mixture of carbon dioxide and humid air, which causes condensation of water vapor in the air, forming fog. Warm water speeds up the process of sublimation, producing more dramatic fog effects. Such devices can be used to make a smoke machine, although simplified versions of this could be created by putting dry ice in water and using fans on low settings. Safety Instructions Do not taste, eat or swallow! Dry ice is very cold and can damage your body.Wear heavy, insulated gloves. Since dry ice is cold, it can damage even your skin, giving you frostbite.Do not store in sealed container. Because dry ice constantly sublimates into carbon dioxide gas, storing it in a sealed container will cause pressure to build up. If it builds up enough, the container could explode.Use only in ventilated space. In a poorly ventilated area, the build up of carbon dioxide could create a suffocation hazard. This is a great danger when transporting the dry ice in a vehicle.Carbon dioxide is heavier than air. It will sink to the floor. Keep this in mind when thinking about how to make the space ventilated. Obtaining Dry Ice You can buy dry ice at most grocery stores. You have to ask for it, though. Sometimes there might be an age requirement on buying dry ice, requiring someone age 18 or over. You can also make dry ice. Edited by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Ethical Dilemmas in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1276 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2018/12/14 Category Medicine Essay Type Review Level High school Tags: Business Ethics Essay Did you like this example? Introduction To provide an insight into the ethical issues that affect admissions into the ICU as well as the process of discharging, the objective of this research if to explore and identify ethical dilemmas that face professionals in the healthcare sector. The main hypotheses is therefore based on the problems that are ethical in in the admission as well as discharge context in the ICU, which are divided into various problems that concern occupancy in full, of the beds as well as problems that are related to decisions on treatment (Ulrich et al, 2010). Body Research background/ context Only few empirical studies into the factors that are non-medical, and affect nurses and physicians in making decisions about the process of discharging and admitting patients in the ICU.Information relating to the healthcare professionals attitude about such process can be utilized in enhancing the process of decision making about intensive care resource allocation. The ICU is an environment of high pressure, where there is delivery of expensive health-care by personnel who are highly to patients that suffer from diseases that are potentially life-threatening (Ulrich et al, 2010).There is limited bed availability, which makes high throughput for patients quite important. Such a throughput usually depends on new patients admission as well as discharging to general wards of the ones whose care equipment for ICU is meant to have ended. The societal financial pressure and higher management keeps increasing. Care services that are critical give a representation of a proportion of net hos pital costs that keep increasing, up right from 1980s 8% to the 2006s 20% in the United States for example. In addition, in Netherlands, ICU department costs have been estimated to give a representation of close to 20% of the total budget for the hospitals. The ICU bed number that is limited as well as the ICU care pressure on the total budget for the hospital, makes it necessary for ICU beds optimal use as well as flow of patients from the emergency room, general ward and operating theatre to the ICU and the opposite is applicable (McLeod, 2014). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Ethical Dilemmas in Intensive Care Unit (ICU)" essay for you Create order Literature Review This study was quite descriptive and explorative at the same time as it used qualitative methods, both focus and individual group interviews. Face to face interviews that are semi-structured are quite useful in exploration of topics that are sensitive in depth. In the focus groups that are subsequent, the interaction and group dynamic among participants helps a greater deal in further exploration as well as clarification of views for participants. Those included nurses and physicians in Dutch hospitals, who work either in the ICU department, or regularly in the general ward through admitting of patients from the ICU (McLeod, 2014). Sampling 19 individual interviews were conducted as well as 4 focus group interviews accompanies with physicians and nurses that work in the general ward or ICU of 10 Dutch hospitals. Before the study was started, there was establishment of contact through telephone with physicians in the ICU in six different hospitals; two of them being general, two academic and two teaching hospitals. Through all these six contacts for hospitals, nurses and physicians were recruited by use of interviews face-to-face. Criteria for inclusion was basically involvement in care for patients that is post-ICU; working as a nurse or physician in either the general ward or ICU regularly doing admissions for post-ICU patients. All participants who were prospective were informed through email on the studys objective as well as being invited for participation. The interviews were conducted at the work place for the participants. The number of total interviews highly depended in the saturation point. There was also d evelopment of interview guide with questions that are open-ended as well as a pilot testing (McLeod, 2014). Presentation of Data and Data Analysis Coding of the focus group and interview transcripts was done by use of ATLAS.ti 6.2. Such analysis was conducted by use of an approach of grounded theory where, the codebook and codes are emerged from the data, contrary to the previous way of formulating tested hypotheses against data that is qualitative. The interviews done on first five individuals were coded as NvS, AO and MZ. After that, any discrepancies that occurred were discussed in depth till consensus was arrived at. A double analysis (MZ and AO) as well as subsequent discussions were also done for interview transcript of the first group. Coding of the entire transcripts was done by one of the researchers (AO). The guideline for COREQ was used for research that is qualitative for both analysis and design. The obtained datas implications for nursing are that the focus and individual interviews for groups showed that in the admission and discharge process of discharge in the ICU context, ethical problems come up at various points in time. When making decision about patient admissions to the ICU right from the emergency room, general ward or operating theatre (A); During the stay of a patient inside the ICU(B) and, when making decision about a patient discharging from the ICU (Gregory et al, 2004). Implication of the Data on Nursing It is very important for general wards and ICUs to do good communication and cooperation, as there is a mutual dependency that is on patient flow that is optimal between the various departments. There is need for interventions that help in improving the cooperation as well as understanding between such wards as it helps in mitigation of problems that are ethical. The environment nature of the ICU makes it quite important for professionals in the healthcare field to be aware of the over-treatment risks, do a reflection of the reasons as to why they do that which they do, as well as being mindful of an imminent negative impact of patients over-treatment. Patients wishes early discussion in regard to options of treatment is quite important in the prevention of over-treatment. The study identified various problems that are ethical at three various instances during the process of discharge and admission; that which surrounded the admission at the ICU, during stay at the ICU and around di scharge at the ICU. They can further be subdivided into two different categories, those that are related to full occupancy of the bed and those that have to do with decisions on treatment (Gregory et al, 2004). Limitations of the study The studys limitations included; any study that is qualitative has the risk of giving responses that are eliciting false and social desire from the interviewees, particularly when inquiries are being made after all topics in the ethics field. Through asking the various participants to do a description of the examples of problems that themselves went through, the risk is hoped to have been diminished. However, in future, there is need to require more of the quantity of focus group and interview participants ,especially when putting to consideration the qualitative researchs labor-intensiveness as well as the number of interviews that is suggested in the literature (Gregory et al, 2004). Conclusion It is very important for general wards and ICUs to do a good cooperation, given that there exists a mutual dependency for the patient flow that is optimal between the various departments. Interventions that aim at improving the cooperation as well as understanding between such wards may go a long way in helping to mitigate problems that are ethical-based (Gregory et al, 2004). References Gregory, K, et al. (2004). Ethical Issues in the Intensive Care Unit : Hospital Physician Board Review Manual, Tuner White Communications, Wayne, PA.. McLeod, A., (2014) . Nurses Views of the Causes of Ethical Dilemmas During Treatment Cessation in the ICU: A Qualitative Study in British Journal of Neuroscience Nursing. USA. Ulrich, C.M et al.,(2010). Moral distress: a growing problem in the health professions? Hastings Cent Rep.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Giver Essay Topics - Is it a Scam?

The Giver Essay Topics - Is it a Scam? Choosing Good Giver Essay Topics Feelings are among the absolute most essential things in life. Kids do not choose what color pajamas they're going to wear because everything is the exact same. Baby gifts are lots of fun not just to the giver but to the expecting receiver also. The absolute most hot and trendy idea are personalized baby solutions. Giving gifts on special occasions has ever been a tradition throughout the world. Though furniture may cost you a bit, but there's still a reasonable choice for you. If your want to make your handmade furniture, don't hesitate to do so. Reading example essays works precisely the same way! Your language of essay has to be easy and understandable. Generally, it requires a research on the topic and different thoughts. Essays might be lightly modified for readability or to defend the anonymity of contributors, but we don't edit essay examples ahead of publication. Last words of advice should be creative and innovative whilst writing literary essay. Following are various kinds of essay topics for students that are categorized in many sections so you can easily chose the topic in accordance with your need and requirement. Though the idea may be appealing to young readers, it doesn't attract the exact feelings from adult readers. The message within this theme is that to be able to receive and appreciate the ideal life offers, you also need to endure some undesirable experiences. It is also shown in a big risk that had a big impact on the story. One other important theme in The Giveris the value of the person. Normally, it takes up to two hours of time to comb through dozens of sites until you discover something exciting to write about. With FreeEssayHelp you'll find hundreds of Giver essay topics in a matter of many seconds. Together with the topics, you'd come across loads of papers free of charge. To begin writing your assignment you would want to run into an interesting and promising topic. It was your very first Stirrings You're prepared for the pills. The constant attention of the puppies demonstrate that Esche is a really sensitive person that has the very best interest of others above the very best interest of her own self. 1 The ending of the giver was interpreted in a couple of unique ways. Only he and the old Giver know all the terrible things that need to happen so as to continue to keep their community in fantastic order, and also these isolates Jonas from his buddies and family members. At one time previously, the folks who inhabited Jonas' community meant to create an ideal society. So are most of the folks who reside locally. During his twelve years locally, he hadn't ever felt such straightforward moments of exquisite happiness. Everyone In Jonas' community feels exactly the same way towards one another, which means they don't have any feelings. On the flip side, Cuba and the Community and similar in the manner that in both places, several of the citizens rights are taken away and they're not permitted to leave the land. A lot of people become bullied or harassed in life due to their specific traits or qualities. Without choices, citizens are passing up important life lessons that can assist you later on in life. The citizens learn at an extremely early age to accept what they're given.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Media Use in Identity Construction free essay sample

In society today the construction of a personal identity can be seen to be somewhat problematic and difficult. Young people are surrounded by influential imagery, especially that of popular media. It is no longer possible for an identity to be constructed merely in a small community and only be influenced by family. Nowadays, arguably everything concerning out lives is seen to be ‘media-saturated’. Therefore, it is obvious that in constructing an identity young people would make use of imagery derived from the popular media. For example, it is becoming increasingly common for young children to have their own television and music systems in their bedrooms whilst also having easy and frequent access to magazines especially aimed at the ‘developing’ child and/or teenager. Such young people would also have a way of accessing the Internet be it at school or sometimes at home. However, it is fair to say that in some instances the freedom of exploring the web could be limited depending on the choice of the parents or teachers. We will write a custom essay sample on Media Use in Identity Construction or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page So, if young people have such frequent access and an interest in the media, it is fair to say that their behaviour and their sense of ‘self’ will be influenced to some degree by what they see, read, hear or discover for themselves. Such an influence may include a particular way of behaving or dressing to the kind of music a person chooses to listen to. These are all aspects which go towards constructing a person’s own personal identity. By close investigation into the popular media, and by using two specific examples of a popular teen magazine and a recent ‘teenage’ hit single that got to number 2 in the British charts, I intend to illustrate the various ways in which young people make use of imagery derived from popular media in the construction of their identities.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Misunderstanding Life essays

Misunderstanding Life essays There were three words that changed my intellectual life and the way I had perceived things. Think about it! Those were the words that were said to me, the phrase think about it didn't have such a powerful meaning until that day. I would have never thought that three words could change a person's life, it changed mines. These words think about it became the most influential words I've ever heard. It was the person who said it and the way he said it that made me take the words in a serious way. My life in elementary was taking a turn for worst I was a bad, carefree, and a want be hard core kid. Even with my mother in the school working as a teacher assistant my behavior was at a low for about eight hours a day at school. My sixth grade teacher on the first day said " I'm not going to have any loud mouth punks in this class. This is my class if you or anyone else don't like what I'm doing in here they will be asked to leave". When he announced that I believe that he was talking about me. What the teacher said to me during that time seemed to me as a bunch of garbage and it didn't effect me, I knew what I was going to do (be a pest) and not do (be a angel). Even though this was the meanest teacher that was in the school and we disagreed on many things, I felt that he sensed that I respected him. In the middle of the school year I was often catching myself doing things that I wasn't supposed to, just to test my boundaries. The process of my intellectual life changing came ab out because of a thing that I did to a girl. One day a girl and I were walking back to class after gym, the gym was in the basement and our class was on the fourth floor. I think just because she was a girl and I had a reputation of being bad, I had to do something to her that would make her laugh or get a reaction out of her. So as we walked up the stairs I turned around and put my hands were they was not supposed to be. I heard her scream and I ran up the stair...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Race and Racism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Race and Racism - Essay Example Thesis statement: An investigation by exploring the factors, historical evolution, and ways that changed the meaning of race to racism. I. The factors that change the meaning of race throughout history The factors that change the meaning of race mainly include phenotypic /geographic features, cultural characteristics, ethnic characteristics, and socio-economic status. A. Phenotypic /geographic features: One can easily identify that the phenotypic characteristics of human race is closely related to its physiological properties which deeply influence behaviour traits and genetic characteristics. To be specific, the phenotypic characteristics of a race differentiate the same from other races. But the phenotypic features that can be seen among different races are not based upon scientific foundation (Rattansi, 2007, p.75). Still, the physical features that can be seen among the members of different human groups are different. From a different angle of view, the phenotypic characteristics of a specific race are forwarded to the next generation by the means of inheritance. Besides, this continuation of genetic peculiarities undergoes modification and deeply influenced hereditary and environmental factors in general. The geographic features that can be seen among different races are closely related to their surroundings. These geographic features are helpful to differentiate and identify the similarities and differences among different races with innumerable numbers of genetic features. B. Cultural characteristics: The cultural characteristics acquired by different races are indebted to its origin, growth and development. Besides, the term/concept of culture was originated in Europe (18th and 19th Centuries) and is related to the sphere of improvement in different fields of human development. The concept of cultural characteristics within the evolution of different races can be defined as the development through education, by means of folklore culture or literature. E thnic groups can be defined on the basis of specific cultural characteristics (Ritzer, 2009, p.439). To be specific, the people who share certain genetic and cultural characteristics can be termed under a specific ethnic group. Within this scenario, cultural characteristics of the evolution of race transformed itself into national aspirations. Later in 20th century, the term culture acquired importance in the field of anthropology. The importance of cultural characteristics of a specific race can be evaluated as the human capacity to encompass almost all the experiences and to act according basic instincts and to transfer it into imagination and creativity. In addition, the cultural characteristics are closely related to the living condition of different races. After the World War II, the term cultural characteristics acquired a different meaning and importance by connecting it with the development of human race as a whole. C. Ethnic characteristics: The ethnic feature of different races within human race is an important factor that did change the meaning of race throughout history. For instance, one’s ethnic feature helps one to differentiate oneself from other races or to find similarities within one’s own race. Besides, the ethnic feature helps different races to create cohesiveness within a specific ethnic